In the text, please designate references with arabic numerals, placed within parenthesis, following all punctuation (except semicolons). The reference list should follow the text.
- List only references that you have read and that are pertinent to the manuscript.
- Cite only published studies as references. You may acknowledge "unpublished date" or "submitted" articles within parentheses in the text. Reference to a "personal communication" within parentheses in the text must be accompanied by a signed permission letter from the individual being cited.
- Abstracts such as those published in the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) annual meeting programs are considered "unpublished" and should be cited in parentheses in the text.
- Oral or poster presentations are similarly unpublished and may be cited only in parentheses in the text. Platform and poster presentations at annual meetings are customarily indicated: (Smith AV, presented at the AAO Annual Meeting, New Orleans, 1998)
- Books or articles "in press" may be cited as numbered references. These must be updated before publication, if possible
Journal abbreviations should be those used by the National Library of Medicine, as found in Index Medicus. If in doubt as to the correct abbreviation, cite the complete journal name. Please follow precisely the format and punctuation shown in the following example. Please contact Digital Journal of Ophthalmology with questions. Do not use periods in abbreviations of journal titles or author's initials.
(If four of fewer authors, list all)
Owsley C, Stalvey B, Wells J, Sloane ME. Older drivers and cataract: driving habits and crash risk. J Gerontol A Bio Sci Med Sci
(If five or more authors, list only the first three and add et al)
Pasco S, Han J, Gillery P, et al
. A specific sequence of the noncollagenous domain of the alpha 3(IV) chain of type IV collagen inhibits expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinases by tumor cells. Cancer Res
Chapter in a Book
Port M. Cosmetic and prosthetic contact lenses. In: Phillips AJ, Stone J, eds. Contact Lenses
. London: Butterworth, 1989; chap. 21
Dowling JE. The Retina: An Approachable Part of the Brain
. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1987:164-186
Online Journal Article
Wick JP, Vernon DD. Visual impairment and driving restrictions. Digital Journal of Ophthalmology
[serial online]. 2002;8. Available at meei/OA/Wick/index.html. Accessed January 6, 2003.
World Wide Web Site
Digital Journal of Ophthalmology
. Patient information on macular degeneration.
Available at: meei/PI/macdegen/macdegen.html. Accessed
January 6, 2003.